Alsaad, A. M., Chaudhry, S. A., & Koren, G. (2015). First trimester exposure to topiramate and the risk of oral clefts in the offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol, 53, 45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.03.003

Baker, G. A., Bromley, R. L., Briggs, M., Cheyne, C. P., Cohen, M. J., Garcia-Finana, M., . . . Clayton-Smith, J. (2015). IQ at 6 years after in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs: a controlled cohort study. Neurology, 84(4), 382-390. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000001182

Bromley, R., Weston, J., Adab, N., Greenhalgh, J., Sanniti, A., McKay, A. J., . . . Marson, A. G. (2014). Treatment for epilepsy in pregnancy: neurodevelopmental outcomes in the child. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 10, CD010236. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010236.pub2

Bromley R. et al: The prevalence of neurodevelopment disorders in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs. J. Neurol Neurosurgery Psychiatry 2013;0:1-7.

Christensen J., Grønborg T.K., Sørensen M.J., Schendel D., Parner E.T., Pedersen L.H., Vestergaard M. Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism. JAMA. 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270.

Clark C.T., Klein A.M., Perel J.M., Helsel J. Wisner, K.L. Lamotrigine dosing for pregnant patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2013; 170:1240–1247) doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13010006.

Fujii H., Goel A., Bernard N., Pistelli A., Yates L.M., Stephens S., Han J.Y., Matsui D., Etwell F., Einarson T.R., Koren G., Einarson A. Pregnancy outcomes following gabapentin use. Results of a prospective comparative cohort study. Neurology. 2013 Apr 23;80(17):1565-70. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828f18c1. Epub 2013 Apr 3

Harden, C.L., Meador, K.J., Pennell, P.B., Hauser, W.A., Gronseth, G.S., French, J.A., … American Academy of Neurology; American Epilepsy Society. (2009). Management issues for women with epilepsy-Focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): II. Teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsia, 50(5),1237-46.  

Hernández-Díaz S., Levin M. Alteration of bioelectrically-controlled processes in the embryo: a teratogenic mechanism for anticonvulsants. Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Aug;47:111-4. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.04.008. Epub 2014 May 6.

Jentink J. et al. (2010). Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf., 19,803-807.

Jentink, J., Boersma, C., de Jong-van den Berg, L.T. & Postma, M.J.(2012): Economic evaluation of anti-epileptic drug therapies with specific focus on teratogenic outcomes. Journal of medical economics,  15(5): 862-868.

Marean A. et al. (2011) Folic acid supplementation can adversely affect murine neural tube closure and embryonic survival. Human Molecular Genetics, 20,3678–3683.

Mawhinney E., Craig J., Morrow J., Russell A., Smithson W.H., Parsons L., Morrison P.J., Liggan B., Irwin B., Delanty N., Hunt S.J. Levetiracetam in pregnancy: results from the UK and Ireland epilepsy and pregnancy registers. Neurology. 2013 Jan 22;80(4):400-5. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31827f0874. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. (1991). Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Lancet, 338(8760), 131-137.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). (2012). The Epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care Nice Clinical Guideline 137. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

Pennell, P. B., Peng, L., Newport, D. J., Ritchie, J. C., Koganti, A., Holley, D. K., . . . Stowe, Z. N. (2008). Lamotrigine in pregnancy: clearance, therapeutic drug monitoring, and seizure frequency. Neurology, 70(22 Pt 2), 2130-2136. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000289511.20864.2a.

Reisinger T.L. , M. Newman, D.W. Loring, P.B. Pennell, K.J. Meador. Antiepileptic drug clearance and seizure frequency during pregnancy in women with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 29 (2013) 13–18 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.06.026. Epub 2013 Aug 2.

Rihtman T., Parush S., Ornoy A. Developmental outcomes at preschool age after fetal exposure to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function. 2013. Reprod. Toxicol. Nov;41:115-25. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.06.001. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Shallcross R., Bromley R.L., Cheyne C.P., García-Fiñana M., Irwin B., Morrow J., Baker G.A.; Liverpool and Manchester Neurodevelopment Group; UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register. (2014). In utero exposure to levetiracetam vs valproate: development and language at 3 years of age. Neurology. 2014 Jan 21;82(3):213-21. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000030. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Tomson T., Palm R., Källén K., Ben-Menachem E., Söderfeldt B., Danielsson B., Johansson R., Luef G., Ohman I. (2007). Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam during pregnancy, delivery, in the neonatal period, and lactation. Epilepsia 2007;48:1111-6.

Tomson T et al. (2011) Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry.  Lancet Neurol., 609-617.

Tomson, T., Marson, A., Boon, P., Canevini, M. P., Covanis, A., Gaily, E., . . . Trinka, E. (2015). Valproate in the treatment of epilepsy in girls and women of childbearing potential. Epilepsia, 56(7), 1006-1019. doi: 10.1111/epi.13021

Tomson, T., Battino, D., Bonizzoni, E., Craig, J. J., Lindhout, D., Perucca, E., . . . Vajda, F. (2015). Antiepileptic drugs and intrauterine death: A prospective observational study from EURAP. Neurology, 85(7), 580-588. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000001840

Veiby G., et al. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs in utero and child development: A prospective population-based study. Epilepsia. 2013;54:1462-72

Veiby, G., Daltveit, A. K., Engelsen, B. A., & Gilhus, N. E. (2014). Fetal growth restriction and birth defects with newer and older antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. J Neurol, 261(3), 579-588. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-7239

Westin A.A., Reimers A., Helde G., Nakken K.O., Brodtkorb E. (2008) Serum concentration/dose ratio of levetiracetam before, during and after pregnancy. Seizure Mar 17(2):192-8.

Weston, J., Bromley, R., Jackson, C. F., Adab, N., Clayton-Smith, J., Greenhalgh, J., . . . Marson, A. G. (2016). Monotherapy treatment of epilepsy in pregnancy: Congenital malformation outcomes in the child. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2016 (11) (no pagination)(CD010224)